Memory is among the themes featuring at the African Biennale of Photography in Mali’s capital, Bamako:

Athi-Patra Ruga - Miss Azania - Exile is waiting - 2015 - #1Image copyright Athi-Patra Ruga
Image caption Miss Azania – Exile is Waiting is the work of South African artist Athi-Patra Ruga, who uses myth and alternative identities “as a contemporary response to the post-apartheid era”.
Fototala King Massassy - Anarchie Productive - 2017 - #9 - 50cmx70cmImage copyright Fototala King Massassy
Image caption The only Malian to be included in the collection, Fototala King Massassy, puts this down to generations of Malian photographers “tending to fall back on tradition”.
Sarah Waiswa - Stranger in a Familiar Land - 2016 - #8 - 80cmx80cmImage copyright Sarah Waiswa
Image caption Stranger in a Familiar Land is the work of Uganda’s Sarah Waiswa, who says she left a job in the corporate world to follow her passion for “creating visual poetry”.
Girma Berta - Moving Shadows II - 2016-2017 - #2 - 40cmx40cmImage copyright Girma Berta
Image caption “The beautiful, the ugly and all that is in between” are what 27-year-old self-taught photographer Girma Berta says he tries to capture in his work.
Samuel Fosso - #25568 - Black Pope Series - 2017 - #1Image copyright Samuel Fosso
Image caption When will an African lead The Vatican? Cameroon’s Samuel Fosso confronts the politics of religion with his Black Pope series.
Edson Chagas - Found Not Taken, Luanda, Series Found Not Taken - 2008-en coursImage copyright Edson Chagas
Image caption In Edson Chagas’ Found Not Taken series, discarded items are picked up and moved to a different location, suggesting that what appears to be reality is in fact a construct.
James Barnor - Une Assistante de la boutique Sick-Hagemeyer - 1971Image copyright James Barnor
Image caption Taken in 1971, this photo of a shop assistant in Accra by James Barnor shows his signature observation of style, during a career which took him from Ghana to London.
Rahima Gambo - Education is Forbidden - 2017 - #9 - 65cmx100cmImage copyright Rahima Gambo
Image caption Education is Forbidden, a series by Rahima Gambo, considers how schoolchildren in northern Nigeria are coping as Islamist militants violate “neutral safe spaces where knowledge is transferred to students”.
Christian Sanna - Moraigny - 2014-2016 - #14 - 40cmx40cmImage copyright Christian Sanna
Image caption Madagascar’s combat sport moraigny, in which one’s opponent is viewed not as an enemy but as a partner to build oneself up, is the subject of Christian Sanna’s piece.
Joana Choumali - ça va aller... - 2016 - #20 - 24cmx24cmImage copyright Joana Choumali
Image caption After the 2016 terror attack on the Grand Bassam beach resort in Ivory Coast, Joana Choumali wanted to document the “melancholy” she witnessed in a place which she had always associated with happy memories. “Ça va aller” (It’ll be OK) reflects her view that Ivorians “do not discuss their psychological issues”, making it harder to heal trauma.
Zied Ben Romdhane - West of Life - 2014-2016 - #3 - 40cmx60cmImage copyright Zied Ben Romdhane
Image caption In West of Life, the “discord between people and nature” is balanced against Zied Ben Romdhane’s wish to honour the “humour of the inhabitants and my affection for them”. The collection depicts life in Tunisia’s poor mining villages, which are “rich in resources but marginalised by the government”.
Mame-Diarra Niang - Le peuple du mur #6 - Series At the Wall - 2014Image copyright Mame-Diarra Niang
Image caption One of a series of photos taken whilst riding a taxi in Dakar, “Le peuple du mur” (The Wall People) captures isolated moments of calm in Senegal’s bustling capital.
Bob Muchiri Njenga- Kichwateli - 2011 - #10Image copyright Bob Muchiri Njenga
Image caption A post-apocalyptic African city is seen through a boy’s eyes in “Kitchwali” (TV Head) by Bob Muchiri Njenga. This still is taken from the Kenyan artist’s experimental short film of the same title.
Eric Gyamfi - Just Like Us - 2016 - #16 - 30cmx40cmImage copyright Eric Gyamfi
Image caption Everyday scenes of “queer life” in Ghana are at the heart of Eric Gyamfi’s series Just Like Us.
Dawit L Petros - Untitled (Prologue II) - Series Stranger's Notebook - 2016Image copyright Dawit L Petros
Image caption The wanderer, the stranger and the migrant underpin Dawit L Petros’s series, The Stranger’s Notebook. The Eritrean artist undertook a year-long journey from Nigeria to Morocco through to Europe, creating and capturing the multidisciplinary project along the way.

Rencontres de Bamako is jointly run by Mali’s government and the Institut Francais and works are on display until 31 January 2018.